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Citing paraphrased material

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APA format

  • The following selection from The World is Flat is presented in an indented block. Since the block indicates that the text is exactly as it appears in the source, quotation marks are not used.


The speaker reacted with astonishment:

       What you're telling me, I said to Rao, is that ,

       no matter what your profession-doctor, lawyer, architect,

       accountant-if you are an American, you better be good

       at the touchy-feely service stuff, because anything

       that can be digitized can be outsourced to either the smartest

       or the cheapest producer, or both.  (Friedman, 2005, p. 14)

  • The ideas in the selection quoted above are paraphrased in the following sentence. The original source is cited within the sentence:


Because any skill, medical, legal, or statistical can be digitized and outsourced, American professionals must have strong interpersonal communication skills to compete in the flat world (Freidman, 2005).


  • The text used in a written project is cited in the Reference List:


Freidman, T. (2005). The World is Flat.  New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

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