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  • The source of the new concept of a flat world is cited within the sentence:


The 21st Century is characterized by the Flat World (Friedman, 2005) in which barriers among countries, communities, and citizens no longer exist or are flattened.  As a result, professionals must prepare for the threat of outsourcing.

  • Citation of paraphrased material is done in such a manner as to allow a reader to locate the material's location within a work, such as a page or paragraph number.

The cheaper and smarter producer will win out over America, so Americans should have good service skills (Friedman, 2005, p. 14).

  • A short, direct quote is cited within the text below without a signal phrase.


Professionals "better be good at the touchy-feely service" (Freidman, 2005, p. 14) skills if they want to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  • A long, exact selection from The World is Flat is quoted directly in a block. Note the location of the citation:

A discussion with Rao leads Friedman to realize people skills will save a professional's career:

       What you're telling me, I said to Rao, is that ,

       no matter what your profession-doctor, lawyer, architect,

       accountant-if you are an American, you better be good

       at the touchy-feely service stuff, because anything

       that can be digitized can be outsourced to either the smartest

       or the cheapest producer, or both.  (Friedman,

       2005, p. 14)

  • The text that is cited in the written project is cited in the  Reference List:


Freidman, T. (2005). The World is Flat.  New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

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