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The new form of carbon matter represents an excellent matrix for introducing other elements, including virtually any metals. As a result, electrical conductivity may be varied over 18 orders of magnitude from dielectric to the metallic state. Therefore many useful physical phenomena may be observed, such as conductivity percolation (with exact correspondence with the theory with some metals and with a giant shift of the threshold with other metals), unusual low-temperature superconductivity with the record high magnetic field, a combination of electrical conductivity with a relatively high optical transparency, a 2-3-orders of magnitude jump of electrical conductivity in the dielectric state (apparently to a giant Jan-Teller effect), nearly zero secondary electron emission, a sharp increase of second harmonic generation following the atomic-to-mesoscopic structural scale transition (from atomic-scale to nano-scale metal-dielectric composites), as well as promising catalytic activity of metallic nanoclusters embodied in a stabilized diamond-like matrix.

Three deposition systems with 1-m inside diameter equipped with up to 7 plasmatrons each, including the giant central plasmatron.

These new materials and technology were first recognized and demonstrated at Stony Brook University in May 1991. During the year 1992-1993, the full industrial-scale technology was transferred to Brookhaven National Laboratory. At this time, an independent research laboratory Atomic Scale Design, Inc. (ASD) was found and it established a productive cooperation with Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc. (ART). For the past ten years, research on these novel carbon materials has been carried out by Atomic Scale Design, Inc. (ASD) and implemented world-wide by Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc. (ART). The new partnership of ASD and NanoDynamics, Inc. inherits and continues this extensive development. Patented compositions of novel matters (DLN/Dylyn, as well as metal-carbon stabilized composites of atomic scale) and processes have been demonstrated and are currently in various phases of commercial use.

Dr. Dorfman continued his exploration of synergetic carbon matters, and found a new quasi-amorphous (QUASAM) class of these carbon based materials. The QUASAM material combines: specific gravity in the range of 1.3 -1.75 g/cc, modulus of elasticity > 100 GPa (over 400 GPa maximum), and hardness > 15 GPa (57 GPa maximum). This combination of properties, along with very good thermal resistance and chemical inertness, are expected to be excellent for use in many industries, especially for aerospace and space applications -both as structural materials and as functional coatings. The QUASAM materials are formed by synergetic thermal-impact activation of chemical reactions and a self-organized growth process which results in a hierarchical structure. These quasi-amorphous carbon matters possess many unusual combinations of properties such as mechanical strength vs. low density, very high thermal stability, superior resistance to thermal shocks, UV and electron-irradiation, high durability in a severe environment like chemical plasma (including free hydrogen), and corrosion resistance in most chemical media. In many cases the strength of interface bonding exceeds the intrinsic strength of the substrate. Consequently, fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of the coated substrate materials dramatically increase.

Figure 5 These two diagrams show the relative mechanical properties of QUASAM and other constructive materials in coordinates DENSITY - HARDNESS and SPECIFIC ELASTIC MODULES - HARDNESS

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