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Chemical-Mechanical Planarization (CMP) Publications

In this Section

2006
Journal Articles

K.A. Assiongbon, S.B. Emery, V.R.K. Gorantla, S.V. Babu and D. Roy, "Electrochemical impedance characteristics of Ta/Cu contact regions in polishing slurries used for chemical mechanical planarization of Ta and Cu: considerations of galvanic corrosion", Corrosion Science, 48, (2006), 372-388

2005
Journal Articles

Mahzad Bastaninejad and Goodarz Ahmadi, “Modeling the Effects of Abrasive Size Distribution, Adhesion, and Surface Plastic Deformation on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152 (9) G720-G730 (2005).

V.R.K. Gorantla, S.B. Emery, S. Pandija, S.V. Babu, D. Roy, "Chemical effects in chemical-mechanical planarization of TaN: Investigation of surface reactions in a peroxide-based alkaline slurry using Fourier transform impedance spectroscopy." Materials Letters, 59, 690-693 (2005)

V.R.K.Gorantla, A. Babel, S. Pandija and S. V. Babu, "Oxalic acid as a complexing agent in copper planarization slurries." Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 8, G131-G134, (2005)

V.R.K. Gorantla, E.Matijević, and S.V. Babu, "Amino acids as complexing agents during chemical mechanical planarization of Cu." Chemistry of Materials, 17, 2076-80 (2005)

V.R.K. Gorantla, K.A. Assiongbon, S.V. Babu, and D. Roy, "Citric acid as a complexing agent in chemical- mechanical planarization of copper: Investigation of surface reactions using impedance spectroscopy." J. Electrochem. Soc., 152, G404-410, (2005)

Y. Hong, D. Roy and S.V. Babu, "Ammonium dodecyl sulfate as a dissolution inhibitor surfactant for electrochemical mechanical planarization of copper." Electrochemistry and S olid-State Letters 8, G297-G300, (2005)

P.C. Goonetillake, S.V. Babu and D.Roy, "Voltage initiated material removal for electrochemical mechanical planarization of copper in NO3-, glycine and H2O2 containing electrolytes." Electrochem. And Solid-State Lett. 8, G190-193, (2005)

Zhenyu Lu, Niels P. Ryde , S.V. Babu, and E. Matijević, "Particle adhesion studies relevant to chemical mechanical polishing." Langmuir (in press).

S. Hegde, U. Patri and S.V. Babu, "Chemical-mechanical polishing of Copper using Molybdenum dioxide slurry." J. Mater. Res. (in press).

V.R. Gorantla, D. Goia, E. Matijević, and S.V. Babu, "The role of amine and carboxyl functional groups of complexing agents in slurries for chemical mechanical polishing of copper." J. Electrochem. Soc. (Accepted).

Ying Li, J. Zhao, P. Wu, Y. Lin, S.V. Babu and Y. Li, "Interaction between abrasive particles and films during chemical-mechanical polishing of copper and tantalum." Thin Solid Films (Accepted).

Y. Hong, U.B. Patri, S. Ramakrishnan, D. Roy and S.V. Babu, "Utility of dodecyl sulfate surfactants as dissolution inhibitors in chemical mechanical planarization of copper" J. Materials Res. (Accepted).

Udaya Patri, Serdar Aksu and S.V. Babu, "Role of the functional groups of complexing agents in copper slurries." J. Electrochem. Soc (Submitted).

S.B. Emery, J.L. Hubbley, M.A. Darling andD. Roy, "Chemical factors for chemical mechanical and electrochemical mechanical planarization of silver examined using potentiodynamic and impedance measurements," Materials Chemistry and Physics, 89, 345-353 (2005).

S.B. Emery, J.L. Hubbley, D. Roy, "Time resolved impedance spectroscopy as a probe of electrochemical kinetics: The ferro/ferricyanide redox reaction in the presence of anion adsorption on thin film gold," Electrochimica Acta, in press (2005).

C.M. Pettit and D. Roy, "Role of iodate ions in chemical mechanical and electrochemical mechanical planarization of Ta investigated using time-resolved impedance spectroscopy," Materials Letters, 59, (2005), 3885-38895.

P.C. Goonetilleke and D. Roy, "Electrochemical-Mechanical Planarization of Copper: Effects of Chemical Additives on Voltage Controlled Removal of Surface Layers in Electrolytes," Materials Chemistry and Physics,94 (2005) 388-400.

Sokolov, I. , “Copper CMP Mimicked with Atomic Force Microscopy,” ASME Proceedings World Tribology Congress III, WTC2005-64018 (2005).

Sokolov, I. , Q.K. Ong, N. Chechik, and D. James, On Direct Measurement of Forces Between CMP Polishing Pads and Abrasive Nanoparticles,” ASME ProceedingsWorld Tribology Congress III, WTC2005-64160 (2005).

Q.K. Ong, I. Sokolov, N. Chechik, and D. James, “AFM Study of Forces between Polyurethane Pads and Ceria Nanoparticles,” Pol. Mater.: Sci. & Eng., 92, 100-101 (2005).

B. Du and I.I. Suni, “Electrochemcal Dissolution of Ta and TaN Diffusion Barriers,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.8, G283 (2005).

B. Du and I.I. Suni, “Cu Planarization for ULSI Processing by Electrochemical Methods: A Review,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf.18, 341 (2005).

S. Sapra, H. Li, Z. Wang and I.I. Suni, “Voltammetry and Impedance Studies of Ta in Aqueous HF,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152, B193 (2005).

2004
Journal Articles
K.A. Assiongbon, S.B. Emery, C.M. Pettit. S.V. Babu and D. Roy, "Chemical role of peroxide-based alkaline slurries in chemical-mechanical polishing of Ta: Investigation of surface reactions using time resolved impedance spectroscopy." Materials Chem. And Phys. 86, 347-357 (2004).

J. Lu, J.E. Garland, C.M. Pettit, S.V. Babu, D. Roy, "Relative Roles of H2O2 and Glycine in Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Copper Studied with Impedance Spectroscopy," J. Electrochem. Soc., 151, G717-722 (2004).

A. Jindal and S.V. Babu, "Effect of pH on chemical-mechanical polishing of Cu and Ta." J. Electrochem. Soc., 151, G709 (2004).

W.G. America and S.V. Babu, "Slurry additive effects on the suppression of silicon nitride removal during chemical-mechanical polishing." Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett., 7, G327 (2004).

S. Hegde and S.V. Babu, "Study of surface charge effects on oxide and nitride planrization using alumina/silica mixed abrasive slurries." Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett., 7, G317 (2004).

M. Tsujimura, I. Noji, A. Fukunaga, S.V. Babu, "General Principle of Planarization Governing CMP, ECP, ECMP & CE – Low down force planarization technologies." Proceedings of VLSI Multilevel
Interconnection Conference
, Tampa, FL, September 2004.

V.K. Deverapalli, Y. Li, and C. Cetinkaya, "Post-Chemical Mechanical Polishing Cleaning of Silicon Wafers with Laser-Induced Plasma," Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 18, 7, 779-794, 2004.

I. Varghese and C. Cetinkaya, "Non-Contact Removal of 60 nm Latex Particles from Silicon Wafers with Laser Induced Plasma," Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 18, 7, 795-806, 2004.

L. Guo and R. S. Subramanian, "Mechanical Removal in CMP of Copper Using Alumina Abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, No. 2, G104-G108 (2004).

B. Du and I.I. Suni, "Diffusion coefficients of water during copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid electrolytes," J. Appl. Electrochem. 34, 1215 (2004).

B. Du and I.I. Suni, "Mechanistic studies of copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid electrolytes," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, C375 (2004).

Z. Wang, H. Li, H.H. Shodiev and I.I. Suni, "Immersion/electroless deposition of Cu onto Ta," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, C67 (2004).

2003
Journal Articles and Conference Papers
Mazahri, A.R. and Ahmadi, G., "A Model for Effect of Colloidal Forces on Chemical Mechanical Polishing," Journal Electrochemical Society, Vol. 150, pp. G233-G239 (2003).

S.C. Kuiry, S. Seal, W. Fei, J. Ramsdell, V. Desai, S.V. Babu and Y. Li, "Effect of pH and H2O2 on Ta CMP: Electrochemistry and XPS Studies," J. Electrochem. Soc., 150, C36 (2003)

I. Moskowitz, W. Lanford, and S.V. Babu, "The effects of process variables on properties and composition of a-Si:C:H films," J. Materials Res. 18, 129 (2003).

A. Jindal, S. Hegde, and S.V. Babu, "Mixed abrasive slurries for dielectric film polishing: J. Electrochem. Soc., 150, G314 (2003).

Z. Lu, S-H Lee, S.V. Babu, and E. Matijević , "The use of monodispersed colloids in the polishing of Copper and Tantalum" J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 261, 55 (2003).

V. Gorantla, R. Venigalla, L. Economicos, D.Connor, and S.V. Babu, "Pattern density dependence of polish rates in fixed abrasive polishing." J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, G821 (2003).

R. Venigalla, L. Economicos, and S.V. Babu, "Mechanism and an empirical model of fixed abrasive polishing process on a web-format tool." J. Mater. Res. 18, 1659 (2003).

S. Hegde and S.V. Babu, "Removal of shallow and deep scratches and pits from copper wafers." Electrochem. and Solid-State Letters, 6, G126 (2003)

Z. Lu, S-H Lee, V.R. Gorantla, S.V. Babu, and E. Matijević, "Effect of mixed abrasives in chemical mechanical polishing of oxide films." J. Mater. Res. 18, 2323 (2003)

J. Lu, J.E. Garland, C.M. Pettit, S.V. Babu, and D. Roy, "Electrochemical Studies of Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing Mechanism: Effects of Oxidizer Concentration," in: Materials Research Society Proceedings, Editors: D.S. Boning, K. Devriendt, M.R. Oliver, D.J. Stein, F 6.4.1, 767, Materials Research Society, Warrendale, 2003.

S. Hedge, U.B. Patri, A. Jindal, and S.V. Babu, "Study of Slurry Composition Transition in a Rotary Copper CMP Process," in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization 2003, Materials Research Society, F1.5.1, 767, 2003.

Z. Lu, S.V. Babu, and E. Matijević, "The Effects of Particle Adhesion in Chemical Mechanical Polishing." in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization 2003, Materials Research Society, F3.5.1, 767, 2003.

S. Hegde and S.V. Babu, "Effect of surface charges on silicon dioxide and nitride planarization using alumina/ceria mixed abrasive slurries." 20th VMIC Conf. Proceedings, p 519, 2003.

S. Hegde and S. V. Babu, "Planarization of metal and dielectric films: new approaches." in Semicon, Japan, Tokyo 2003

V.R. Gortantla and S.V. Babu, "Chemical-mechanical planarization of metal and dielectric thin films: in Role of Chemical Engineering in Processing of Minerals and Materials," J.N. Mohanty et al (Eds.), Chemcon-2003, Bhubaneswar, India.

2002
Books Edited
Chemical-Mechanical Planarization: 2002 MRS meeting Proceedings, Vol. 732E (electronic-only publication), S.V. Babu, R. Singh, N. Hayasaka, and M. Oliver (eds.)

Journal Articles and Conference Papers
A. Jindal, S. Hegde, and S.V. Babu, "Chemical-mechanical polishing using mixed abrasive slurries." Electrochem. and Solid-State Letters , 5, G48 (2002).

S-H Lee, Z. Lu, S.V. Babu, and E.Matijević , "Chemical mechanical polishing of thermal oxide films using silica particles coated with ceria." J. Materials Res. 17 , 2744 (2002).

A. Jindal, S. Hegde and S.V. Babu, "Mixed abrasive slurry: a study of metal CMP." Semiconductor Fab Tech, 16, (2002).

2001
Books Edited
Chemical-mechanical Polishing 2001, Advances and Future Challenges: 2001, MRS Meeting Proceedings, Vol 671, S.V. Babu, K.C. Cadien and H. Yano (eds).

Journal Articles and Conference Papers
Ahmadi, G. and Xia, X., "A model for Mechanical Wear and abrasive Particle Adhesion during the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 148 , G99-G109 (2001).

G. Ahmadi, A. Mazaheri and X. Xia, "A Mechanical Wear Model for Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process," 2001 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 2001.

A. Mazaheri and G. Ahmadi, "A Model for Effect of Colloidal Forces on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing," 2001 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 2001.

A. Mazaheri and G. Ahmadi, "A Model for Colloidal Force Effects on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing," 20th Annual Conference of the American Association for Aerosol Research, AAAR 2001, Portland, Oregan, October 15-19, 2001.

Ying Li and S.V. Babu., "Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper and Tantalum in Potassium Iodate-Based Slurries, Electrochem. and Solid-State Letters, 4, G20 (2001)

I. Moskowitz and S.V. Babu, "Surface morphology and quality of a-Si:C:H: films," Thin Solid Films, 385, 48 (2001).

Li, Y., Hariharaputhiran, M., and Babu, S.V., "Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper and Tantalum with Silica Abrasives," J. Mater. Res., 16, 1066 (2001)

S.V. Babu, Y. Li, and A. Jindal, "Chemical mechanical planarization of Cu and Ta: Role of different slurry constituents." JOM – Journal of the Minerals Metals & Materials society, 53 (6), 50, (2001)

A. Jindal, S. Narayanan and S. V. Babu, "Slurry Retention and transport during chemical-mechanical polishing of Copper." in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing 2001; Advances and Future Challenges, Materials Research Society, M4.10, 671, (2001).

A. Jindal, Y. Li, and S.V. Babu, "Effect of pH on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper and Tantalum," in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing 2001; Advances and Future Challenges, Materials Research Society, M6.8, 671, (2001).

Y. Li, and S.V. Babu, "Chemical mechanical planarization of Cu and Ta: Some recent developments," Semiconductor Fab Tech, 259, 13, (2001).

A. Jindal, S. Hegde, and S.V. Babu, "Evaluation of alumina/silica mixed abrasive slurries for chemical-mechanical polishing of copper and tantalum." Proceedings of the 18th Intl VLSI Multilevel
Interconnection Conf.
, p 297, (2001).

Zhang, L. and Subramanian, R.S. "A Model of Abrasive-Free Removal of Copper Films Using an Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide-Glycine Solution," Thin Solid Films, 397, 143-151 (2001).

Subramanian, R.S., and Appat, R. "A Model of Chemical-Mechanical Planarization of Patterned Wafers with a Fixed Abrasive Pad," Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 4, No. 12, G115-G118 (2001).

R. Srinivasan, Y. Tian and I.I. Suni, "Surface plasmon enhancement of second harmonic generation during Au nanoparticle deposition onto Si(III)," Surf. Sci. 490, 308 (2001).

I.I. Suni, H. Lin, and A.A. Busnaina, "Effects of pulsating flow on cleaning of and deposition into trenches, in Fundamental Gas-phase and Surface Chemistry of Vapor Deposition II/Process Control, Diagnostics and Modeling in Semiconductor Manufacturing IV, The Electrochemical Society, ECS Proceedings 2001-13, 332 (2001).

2000
Journal Articles and Conference Papers
G. Ahmadi, A.R. Mazaheri and X. Xia, "Modeling the Effect of Abrasive Particles in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing," 5th International Symposium on Chemical-Mechanical Polishing, Lake Placid, NY, August 13-16, 2000.

Q. Luo and S.V. Babu, "Dishing effects during chemical-mechanical polishing of copper in acidic slurries," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 4639-4644 (2000).

Li, Y., Jindal, A., and Babu, S.V., "Role of Chemicals and Abrasive Particle Properties in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper and Tantalum," Proc. The Electrochemical Society 198th Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, October 22-27 (2000).

M. Hariharaputhiran, J. Zhang, S. Ramarajan, J.J. Keleher, Y. Li, and S. V. Babu, "Hydroxyl radical formation in H2O2 -amino acid mixtures and chemical mechanical polishing of copper," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 3820-3826 (2000).

Keleher, J., Tyre, E., Her, R., Babu, S. V., and Li, Y., "Hydroxyl radical formation and copper line corrosion in Cu-CMP," Proc. 5th International CMP for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (CMP-MIC), 66-72, March 2-3, Santa Clara, CA, (2000).

Srinivasan, R.; America, W.G.; Her, Y.; and Babu, S.V. "Ceria based slurries for STI planarization," Proc. Fifth International CMP for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (CMP-MIC), 148-154, March 2-3, Santa Clara, CA, (2000).

Li, Y.; Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.S.; and Babu, S.V., "Planarization of Cu and Ta films using alumina and silica abrasives – A comparison," Proc. MRS Spring Symposium E, April 24-28, CA, (2000).

Ramarajan, S.; Li, Y.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.S.; and Babu, S.V. "Effect of pH and Ionic Strength on The Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Tantalum," Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 3, 232-234 (2000).

Hariharaputhiran, M.; Li, Y.; Ramarajan, S.; and Babu, S.V. "Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Ta," Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 3, 95-98 (2000).

Y. Li, A. Jindal, and S.V. Babu "Role of Chemicals and abrasive particle properties in chemical-mechanical polishing of Cu and Ta." in Copper Interconnects, New contact metallurgies, and Low-k Interlevel Dielectrics (G.S. Mathad and H.S Rathore, eds), ECS Symposium Proceedings, p32, PV2000-27, 2000.

A. Babel, D.R. Campbell , J.D. Barry, and R.A. Mackay, "Effects of Surfactants on the Stabilityof Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurries," Int. Journal of CMP for Multilevel Interconnection, 1, 135 (2000).

A. Babel and R.A. Mackay, "Surfactant-Based Alumina Slurries for Copper CMP," MRS Symposium Proceedings, S.V. Babu, S. Danyluk, M. Krishnan and M. Tsujimura, eds., 566, 135 (2000).

I.I. Suni, Y. Tian and A.A. Busnaina, "Surface roughness evolution during Cu electropolishing," in Scanning Probe Microscopy for Electrode Characterization and Nanometer Scale Modification, The Electrochemical Society, ECS Proceedings 2000-35, 194 (2000).

I.I. Suni, A.A. Busnaina, C.S. Tiwari, H. Lin, V. Reynolds and C. Neely, "Copper electroplating onto silicon wafers using high-frequency acoustic streaming," in Copper Interconnects, New Contact Metallurgies, and Low-k Interlevel Dielectrics, The Electrochemical Society, ECS Proceedings 2000-27, 15-22 (2000).

I.I. Suni, A.A. Busnaina, C.S. Tiwari, H. Lin, V. Reynolds and C. Neely, "Copper Electroplating onto Silicon Wafers using High-Frequency Acoustic Streaming," Proceedings of the 198th meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Phoenix, AZ, (November 20-23, 2000).

I.I. Suni, Y. Tian and A.A. Busnaina, "Surface Roughness Evolution during Cu Electropolishing," Proceedings of the 198th meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Phoenix, AZ (November 20-23, 2000).

A.A. Busnaina, C.S. Tiwari, I.I. Suni, V. Reynolds, M. Nakowski, C. Neely and T. Way, "Enhanced Copper Electroplating using High Frequency Acoustic Streaming," Proceedings of the 2000 AESF Annual Technical Conference, Chicago, IL, (July 10-13, 2000).

1999
Books Edited
Chemical-Mechanical Polishing: Fundamentals and Challenges: MRS Spring Meeting proceedings, Vol. 566, S.V. Babu, S. Danyluk, M. Krishnan, and M. Tsujimura (eds) (1999).

Journal Articles and Conference Papers
Zhang, F.; Busnaina, A.A.; and Ahmadi, G. "Particle Adhesion and Removal in Chemical Mechanical Polishing and Post-CMP Cleaning," J. Electrochemical Soc., 147, 2665-2669 (1999).

Subramanian, R.S.;, Zhang, L.; Babu, S.V. "Transport phenomena in chemical mechanical polishing," J. Electrochem. Soc.. 146, 4263-4272 (1999).

Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.-S.; and Babu, S.V. "Hardness of Sub- Micrometer Abrasive Particles and Polish Rate Measurements," Surf. Engg. 15 , 324-328 (1999).

Koduri, P.; Sunkara, M.K.; Dickey, E.C.; et al. "Structural and electrochemical characterisation of metal doped diamondlike carbon films," Surf. Engg. 15, 373-376 (1999).

Ramarajan, S.; Li, Y.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; and Babu, S.V. "The Role of Alumina Particle Density in The Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper, Tantalum and Tungsten Disks and Films, IMIC, Journal of CMP for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection , 1, 28-38 (1999).

Hariharaputhiran, M.; Ramarajan, S.; Li, Y.; and Babu, S.V. "Copper and Tantalum Dissolution and Planarization in H2O2-Based Slurries," Advanced MetallizationConference, Orlando, (Sept. 1999).

Hariharaputhiran, M.; Ramarajan, S.; and Babu, S.V. "Mechanism of Cu removal during CMP in hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurries," MRS Symposium Proceedings 566, 129 (1999).

Ramarajan, S. and Babu, S.V. "Modified Preston Equation – Revisited," MRS Symposium Proceedings, 566, 149 (1999).

Ramarajan, S.; Li, Y.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.S.; and Babu., S.V. "Role of Film Hardness on the Polish Rates of Metal Thin Films," MRS Symposium Proceedings 566, 123 (1999).

Babu, S.V.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y. "Mechanism of dissolution and planarization of copper films in hydrogen peroxide-glycine containing slurries," MRS Proceedings 566, 129 (1999).

America, W.G.; Srinivasan, R.; and Babu, S.V. "The Influence of pH and Temperature on Polish Rates and Selectivity of Silicon Dioxide and Nitride Films," MRS Symposium Proceedings, 566, 13 (1999).

Ramarajan, S. and Babu, S.V. "Preston Equation and its Modification for Copper Polishing-Pressure Dependence," American Ceramic Society Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, (April 1999).

Her, Y.S.; Smith, D.M.; Mayton, M.M.; Prendergast, J.E.; Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; and Babu, S.V. "The Role of the Physical Properties of Alumina Abrasive in the Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper," American Ceramic Society Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, (April 1999).

Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; and Babu, S.V.; Her, Y.-S.; and Prendergast, J.E. "The role of Alumina Particle Hardness/Elastic Modulus in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper, Tantalum and Tungsten," Proc. Fourth international CMP for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (CMP-MIC), 430-435, Feb. 11-12, Santa Clara, CA, (1999).

Hariharaputhiran, M.; Ramarajan, S.; Li, Y.; and Babu, S.V. "Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Ta," Proc. Sixteenth international VMIC Multilevel interconnectionconference, Sept. 7-9, 199, 630-635, Santa Clara, CA, (1999).

I.I. Suni, G.W. Gale and A.A. Busnaina, "Dissolution of Atomic, Molecular and Ionic Contamination from Silicon Wafers during Aqueous Processing," J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3522 (1999).

1998
Journal Articles and Conference Papers
Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.-S.; and Babu, S.V. "Hardness of Sub-Micron Abrasive Particles and Polish Rate Measurements," Proc. 12th International Surface Modification Technologies Materials Solutions Conference, ASM, 415-422, Illinois, (1998).

Babu, S.V.; Li, Y.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Ramarajan, S.; Zhang, J.; Her, Y.-S.; and Prendergast, J.E "Investigation of Cu and Ta Polishing Using Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycine and A Metallic Catalyst,"
Proc. 15th International VLSI Multilevel Interconnection (VMIC) Conference, June 15-19, 443-448, Santa Clara, CA, (1998).

Babu, S.V.; Ramarajan, S.; Hariharaputhiran, M.; Her, Y.-S.; and Mayton, M.M. "The Role of Particulate Properties in The Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper and Oxides," Proc. CMP-MIC, 121-127, Santa Clara, CA, Feb. 19-20, (1998).

Prendergast, J.E.; Mayton, M.M.; Her, Y.S.; Babu, S.V.; Li, Y.; and Hariharaputhiran, M. "Slurry for Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Metal Surfaces," US patent (submitted on April, 1998).

Luo, Q., Ramarajan, S, and Babu S.V., "Modification of the Preston Equation for the Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Copper," Thin Solid Films 335, 160-167 (1998).