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2017 Seminars

In this Section

Spring 2017 Seminars

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Friday, February 24, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Ashkan Koushanpour

Clarkson University

will speak on

“Enzymatic biofuel cell based on carbon fiber functionalized with in situ green synthesis of graphene nanosheets"

Abstract:

Sustainable power sources, which derive energy from renewable resources, with the ability for miniaturization allowing use as implantable devices, have recently claimed significant attention. Due to recent increase in high demand of in situ and continuous source of power for biomedical devices the need for a special design is imperative. Enzymatic biofuel cells by far are believed to be the best available alternatives for this aim as they don’t present hurdles such as harsh operating conditions, toxicity, and low reliability.

Here a membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell based on a novel electrode material developed by in situ green electrochemical synthesis of graphene nano sheets onto 3D carbon fiber electrode is introduced. The modified electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH was developed using Meldola’s Blue (MB) while the reduction of H2O2 was catalyzed by hemin. Both catalysts were adsorbed on the graphene flakes due to their π-π stacking. Following that, the MB and the hemin were further modified with glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and glucose oxidase (GOx) respectively. The enzymatic reaction occurring on the electrode surface in the presence of Glucose and O2 will result in production of NADH and H2O2 which will immediately be oxidized and reduced respectively at the biocatalytic modified electrodes. This enzyme-based biofuel cell is operated in a human serum solution modelling an implantable device powered from natural biofluids and has the potential for miniaturization.

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Friday, February 17, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Eduard Dumitrescu

Clarkson University

will speak on

Chemical processes and environmental toxicity of CMP particles and additives"

Abstract:

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is a wafer polishing technique used to remove excess deposited materials during the manufacturing of integrated circuit chips in semiconductor industry. The CMP slurry typically contains an aqueous dispersion of metal oxide particles (e.g. silica, ceria, alumina) and chemical additives. The chemical additives in the slurry selectively dissolve the materials present on the wafer surface, while the particles mechanically remove the chemically modified surface film through abrasion. Both particles and chemical additives are eliminated through CMP effluents along with dissolved and particulate materials removed by the polishing process. Therefore, knowledge of the interactions between metal oxide particles and additives, and their environmental toxicity is of great importance. This presentation will describe the study of environmental and chemical processes implicating CMP particles and additives. Toxicity of three common slurry formulations and their resulting waste was assessed using zebrafish embryos model. The toxicological characterization is discussed in relation to the physicochemical changes and interactions between particles and chemical additives. These results provide toxicological information of realistic CMP slurries and their polishing waste, and should be useful for the rational design of more environmentally friendly slurries with predictive toxicological impact.  

Dumitrescu Seminar

Professor Silvana Andreescu (right) with Eduard Dumitrescu

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Hopke Distinguished Lecture

Friday, February 10, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 213

Dr. Tami C. Bond

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

will speak on

“Living Scenarios: Chemical Processes, Drivers of Emissions, and Anthrogeoscience"

Abstract:

A major goal of studying chemical processes in the atmosphere is, arguably, developing a predictive capability for the environment. In turn, prediction provides an understanding of consequences and benefits of choices. The implication is that we expect to connect human decisions and physical outcomes—a requirement for responsible stewardship. I will speculate on a ten-year vision for building a predictive framework, from microscopic to macroscopic scales, that leads toward more closely-coupled projections of the connections between humans, infrastructure, social systems, and the environment. Key elements are iterating top-down observations with bottom-up investigation, parsimonious modeling, and judicious collaboration. I will draw examples from my past decade of work, which ranges from real-time characterization of cooking stoves to modeling that resolves individual atmospheric particles to predicting emissions from the United States freight system. The word “scenario” currently means a highly idealized storyline. In the future, I hope that it comes to mean visualization that reflects lived experience. Engineers and scientists play a role in deep understanding of the system, and in appropriate distillation of knowledge.  

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Friday, February 3, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Dr. Sam Nugen

Department of Food Science

Cornell University

will speak on

Developing phage-based nanoprobes for rapid pathogen separation and detection"

Abstract:

With increasing concerns regarding the food safety of minimally processed foods such as fruits and vegetables, the food and agriculture industries would benefit greatly from a rapid screening method to determine the presence of potential pathogens in complex matrices. Such a tool could help reduce foodborne illness by allowing farmers, distributors, manufacturers and retailers the ability to determine initial product quality and safety. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled many new platforms which can be used for these purposes.

While the concept of “nanobots” has until now been relegated to science fiction, the Nugen Research Group has utilized advances in nanotechnology and synthetic biology towards the development of hybrid bio-inorganic systems consisting of engineered viruses which have been magnetized through oriented conjugation to magnetic nanoparticles. While nanotechnology has enabled the synthesis and conjugation of high speed magnetic particles, synthetic biology allows us to “program” the virus to perform customized functions.

We are currently developing bacteriophage-based nanoprobes which can separate bacteria from a complex sample, and then specifically select for viable targets for detection. We have genetically engineered the phages to express conjugation moieties on the capsid surface and for the insertion of engineered enzyme genes for a colorimetric detection. Compared with immune-based separation schemes, bacteriophages had a much stronger attachment to the bacterial surface. The attachment was stronger in all extreme sample conditions including pH, temperature, and salt concentration. The phages have been genetically engineered to insert a gene for an engineered enzyme into the target host to allow for a highly specific and sensitive detection of viable bacteria which is low-cost and portable.  

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Friday, January 27, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Jesse Pokrzywinski

Clarkson University

will speak on

“Unrivaled Combination of Surface Area and Pore Volume in Micelle-Templated Carbon for Supercapacitor Energy Storage"

Abstract:

We created Immense Surface Area Carbons (ISACs) by a novel heat treatment that stabilized the micelle structure in a biological based precursor prior to high temperature combined activation – pyrolysis. While displaying the morphology akin to commercial activated carbon, ISACs contain an unparalleled combination of electrochemically active surface area and pore volume (up to 4051 m2 g-1, total pore volume 2.60 cm3 g-1, 76% small mesopores). The carbons also possess the benefit of being quite pure (O and N < 1.9 at.% total), thus allowing for a capacitive response that is primarily EDLC. Tested at commercial mass loadings (~ 10 mg cm-2) ISACs demonstrate exceptional specific capacitance values throughout the entire relevant current density regime, with superior rate capability primarily due to the large fraction of mesopores. In the optimized ISAC, the specific capacitance (Cg) is 540 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1, 409 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 226 F g-1 at a very high current density of 300 A g-1 (~0.15 second charge time). At intermediate and high currents such capacitance values have not been previously reported for any carbon. Tested with a stable 1.8 V window in a 1M Li2SO4 electrolyte, a symmetric supercapacitor cell yields a flat energy – power profile that is fully competitive with organic electrolyte systems: 29 Wh kg-1 at 442 W kg-1 and 17 Wh kg-1 at 3940 W kg-1. The cyclability of symmetric ISAC –cells is also exceptional due to the minimization of faradaic reactions on the carbon surface, with 80% capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles in 1M Li2SO4 and 75,000 cycles in 6M KOH.  

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Friday, January 20, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Dr. Brian Panama

Masonic Medical Research Laboratory

Utica, NY

will speak on

Atrial electrophysiological and molecular remodeling induced by obstructive sleep apnea"

Abstract:

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 9-24% of the adult population. OSA is associated with atrial disease, including atrial enlargement, fibrosis and arrhythmias. Despite the link between OSA and cardiac disease, the molecular changes in the heart which occur with OSA remain elusive. To study OSA-induced cardiac changes, we utilized a recently developed rat model which closely recapitulates the characteristics of OSA.

Methods and Results: Male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 50-70 days, received surgically implanted tracheal balloons which were inflated to cause transient airway obstructions. Rats were given 60 apneas per hour of either 13 seconds (moderate apnea) or 23 seconds (severe apnea), eight hours per day for two weeks. Controls received implants, but no inflations were made. Pulse oximetry measurements were taken at regular intervals, and post apnea ECGs were recorded. Rats had longer P wave durations and increased T wave amplitudes following chronic OSA. Proteomic analysis of the atrial tissue homogenates revealed that three of the nine enzymes in glycolysis, and two proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, were down‑regulated in the severe apnea group. Several sarcomeric and pro-hypertrophic proteins were also up-regulated with OSA.

Conclusion: Chronic OSA causes proteins changes in the atria which suggest impairment of energy metabolism and enhancement of hypertrophy.

Brian Panama 2017

Professor Costel Darie (right) with Dr. Brian Panama

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Friday, January 16, 2017

9:00 a.m.
Science Center Room 244

Wen An

M.S. Defense

M.S Candidate

Clarkson University

will speak on

“Zwitterionic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Rational Design and Fundamental Research"

Abstract:

The work presented in this thesis demonstrates the research perspective that specific adsorption properties of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be accessed by introducing intramolecular electrostatic fields through zwitterionic (ZW) ligands. The two components of this work include an in-depth investigation of the synthesis, characterizations and real world applications of MOFs followed by specific examples of new ZW MOFs that have been synthesized and characterized in my research projects. The single crystal structures, thermal stabilities and the gas adsorption analyses of these new ZW MOFs will be discussed in detail.
MOFs are a new class of crystalline porous materials composed of metal clusters connected by polytopic organic linkers. They have large open voids and high surface areas, which surpass traditional porous materials. The framework structures, pore environments and functionalities can be tailored to specific needs by modifying the combination of metal clusters and organic ligands. The highly tunable nature and versatility of MOFs allow them to function as advanced porous materials capable of applications such as gas storage and small-molecule separations.
Since MOFs are self-assembled from organic ligands and metal nodes through traditional coordination bonds, the structural geometries of these materials can be designed to satisfy certain requirements. The metal ions have fixed coordination geometries when linked to organic ligands, and the rigid or flexible nature of the bridging ligands will result in distinct chemical environments. My investigations commence with the structural design of novel ZW ligands with the objective to synthesize advanced ZW MOFs. ZW ligands consist a unique combination of cationic (e.g., pyridinium N atom) and anionic functional groups (e.g., a carboxylate anion). These well separated positive and negative charges form an electrostatic field gradient along the zwitterion’s molecular surface, creating a charged organic surface within the pore environment.  This effect may result in the polarization of guest molecules which has the potential to increase host-guest interactions and thus, enhancing the MOF’s adsorption enthalpies. 
Herein, I report the design of three unique pyridinium-based ZW ligands 1,1′,1′′-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris(methylene)tris(4-carboxypyridinium) tribromide (H3L1Br3), 1,1′-(benzene-1,4,-diyl)di(methylene)di(4-carboxypyridinium) dibromide (H2L2Br2)  and 3-carboxy-1-(3-carboxybenzyl)pyridinium bromide (H2L3Br). The nitrogen functionalities of the pyridinium derivatives are of cationic nature while being charge compensated by bromide anions. Upon deprotonation of the carboxylic acid sites and incorporation of the ZW ligand into a MOF, four new ZW MOFs were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and adsorption analysis. Gas adsorption measurements of these new ZW MOFs yielded promising results revealing that strongly charged functional groups in the framework promote charge-quadrupole interactions with gas molecules, hence increasing the gas uptake. Particularly, the MOF {[CdBr(L)]·(ClO4)·2DMF}n exhibits an unprecedented light-responsive adsorption effect attributed to the reversible photoinduced generation of radicals to produce a switchable electrostatic pore surface.

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Friday, January 13, 2017

3:30 p.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Dawei Xu

Clarkson University

will speak on

“Development of Supramolecular Filamentous Cell Penetrating Peptide for Therapeutic Delivery"

Abstract:

The discovery of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) has great impacts on both fundamental and translational biomedical research due to their unique ability to transverse cell membranes. Natural CPPs are typically in their monomeric state, which has poor stability for in vivo circulation. In this seminar, I will discuss our recent development of Filamentous Cell Penetrating Peptide (FCPPs) that possess greatly improved stability against proteolysis, and exceptional ability to perturb cell membrane with minimal cytotoxicity. We believe the acquired knowledge through these studies of FCPPs could potentially be established as a new and unique CPP platform with well-defined filamentous structure and ease of incorporating multi-therapeutics to treat various human diseases ranging from anti-viral infection to cancer therapy.  

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Friday, January 13, 2017

8:30 a.m.
Bertrand H. Snell Hall Room 212

Anahita Karimi

PhD Defense

PhD Candidate

Clarkson University

will speak on

“Electroanalytical Evaluation of Nanoparticles by Nano-impact Electrochemistry"

Abstract:

Applications of engineered nanoparticles in electronics, catalysis, solid oxide fuel cells, medicine and sensing continue to increase. Traditionally, nanoparticle systems are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. These methods are cumbersome and expensive, which limit their routine use for screening purposes. Electrochemistry is a powerful, yet underutilized tool, for the detection and classification of nanoparticles. The first part of this presentation will discuss the potential of this technique for investigating bioconjugation and biomolecular recognition. Fundamental study of biorecognition is important for the development of therapeutics and molecular diagnosis probes in the biomedical, biosensing and biotechnology fields. A study of molecular binding mechanisms of ssDNA at single particle surfaces and target detection at aptamer functionalized nanoparticles will be provided. The second part will describe the use of this method as a screening tool of particle reactivity. We study the interaction and adsorption of a toxic environmental metalloid (arsenic) with metal oxide nanoparticles to extract mechanistic, speciation and loading information. We discuss the potential of this approach to complement or replace costly characterization techniques and enable routine study of nanoparticles and their reactivity. 

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